"For the first time since the plantation days artists began to touch
new material, to understand new tools and to accept eagerly the challenge
of Black poetry, Black song and Black scholarship."1
By 1934 the economic destruction wreaked by the Great Depression had
put between eleven and fifteen million people out of work. Ten thousand
of these jobless citizens were artists. A year earlier, Franklin D. Roosevelt,
the newly elected president, had signed into legislation the Federal Emergency
Relief Act. Based on a system of work relief, this project's primary objective
was simply to get people back to work, artists included. The government
had no particular commitment to the arts, but it realized that artists
"have to eat like other people."2 New Deal employment projects,
however, didn't just put food on the artist's table. Through an innovative
set of programs, the government set the scene for a richly productive
era in American art.
In 1935 Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration (later the
Work Projects Administration) or WPA. Its purpose was to create all kinds
of jobs at every level of the skill ladder, preserving professional and
technical skills while helping individuals maintain their self-respect.
Artists in the program were paid $15 to $90 a month for a wide variety
of assignments. Work-relief programs functioned under this basic design
from 1935 to 1939 when the WPA was renamed the Work Projects Administration
and placed under the supervision of the Federal Art Project (FAP). The
WPA/FAP lasted until 1943, when productivity and employment soared as
the country marshaled its resources to fight World War II.
From 1935 to 1943 the WPA/FAP had four major areas of activity: the creation
of art, art education, art as applied to community service, and technical
and archaeological research. The most prolific divisions were those responsible
for easel painting, murals, sculpture, and fine prints.
"Black Printmakers and the WPA" specifically addresses the
area of fine prints and the community art centers where they were made.
There, art education and community service combined to give significant
numbers of Black artists the rare opportunity to be supported in their
chosen line of work, to gain new avenues for expression, and to have contact
with white artists, which under other circumstances would not have occurred.
The Black printmaker has only a few recorded historical antecedents.
While there is documentation showing that Black printmakers were active
in this country as early as 1724, the anonymity of the slave makes it
almost impossible to trace individual achievements. We know that the only
known portrait of the slave poet Phyllis Wheatley was engraved by Scipio
Moorehead, a Boston slave, in 1773.3 Half a century later,
three slaves, a father and his two sons, are known to have been active
in the Boston printing shop of one Thomas Fleet, who had come to Massachusetts
from England in 1821 to escape religious persecution.4 Only
the two sons are identified by nameCaesar and Pompeybut all
three men were said to have been "bred to press." These artisan
slaves were trained in Fleet's shop to set type and to do woodblock engraving.
According to Fleet, the father was an exceptional artist "who cut
on wooden blocks, all the pictures which decorated the ballads and small
books of his master."5
Patrick Reason (1817-c.1850), known to have been an engraver, draftsman,
and lithographer, apprenticed as a youth to an engraver in New York. And
Grafton Tyler Brown (1841-1918) owned and operated his own lithography
firm in Oakland, California.
During the first three decades of the twentieth century, Blacks who followed
this profession found outlets for their work in magazines, newspapers,
journals, and other popular publications. Access for Black artists was
primarily limited to the pages of publications that focused on issues
of race relations and their sociopolitical ramifications. Magazines such
as Crisis, Survey Graphic, and Opportunity afforded these artists the
greatest amount of exposure.
It was not until the years of the WPA that Black artists found viable
conditions to explore their own creativity, develop printmaking processes
and gain access to new technologies. The graphic arts division of the
WPA/FAP directly assigned artists in the Philadelphia program to develop
original prints in all media, but many of the artists assigned to other
projects also found time to experiment with print making. The main catalysts
for creativity were the community art centers that sprang up in various
urban centers and at Black colleges. The Harlem Recreation Art Center
is the most famous for its list of alumni reads like a Who's Who in Black
American culture: Selma Burke, Aaron Douglas, Palmer Hayden Jacob Lawrence,
and Augusta Savage all worked there. But there were also vibrant centers
in Cleveland, Chicago, Atlanta, Richmond, Oklahoma City, Memphis, Tennessee,
and Jacksonville, Florida. One of the most exciting aspects of research
into this era of American art is that a great many of the artists are
still living and they are without exception still actively pursuing their
The community art centers provided young Black artists with new experiences
in the arts, experiences from which they had been largely excluded by
the segregated social conditions of the times. As teachers in the centers,
professional Black artists were able to gain access to printing presses
and tools. A very special relationship between artists, teachers, and
students evolved during this time. Roles freely shifted or merged, as
teachers and students explored new technologies together. Riva Helfond,
one of the artistteachers at the Harlem center, recalled the lithographic
process, and learning "how to manipulate the technique involved in
printing from these mysterious, beautiful surfaces."6
In 1945, painter and art historian James Porter wrote, "The opportunities
afforded... so far through the WPA Federal Arts Projects raise the hope
that equal opportunities will soon appear through private and commercial
patronage and that the prejudice and mistrust that have restricted the
Negro artist and warped his milieu will be abolished."7
While such hopes have yet to be fully realized, during the years 1935
to 1945, Black artistsand in particular Black printmakersattained
remarkable artistic and technical levels of achievement.
Artists in the WPA graphic arts division produced more than 200,000 fine
prints from more than 11,000 designs. They used the traditional media
of woodblock, lithography, etching, and aquatint extensively, but the
division's claim to fame was its artists' successful experiments with
new techniques. As WPA historian Francis V. O'Connor observed, "This
aspect of the WPA/FAP's activities was most noted for its many technical
innovationsespecially its perfection of color lithography and the
serigraph (silk screen) for creative purposes and the invention of the
A large share of the credit for such innovations goes to the Philadelphia
graphics divisionthe only one of the WPA's community centers to
be specifically designated a fine-print workshop. The program had to its
credit four young Black artistsDox Thrash (1893-1965), Claude Clark
(b. 1915), Raymond Steth (b. 1918) and Samuel Brown (b. 1907)who
were intensely committed to developing and expanding the print medium.
Thrash, Clark, and Steth were assigned~directly to the prin't department,
Brown was officially attached to the watercolor department, but he found
the need and the time to test his skills at print making.
The kind of close working-relationships and creative energy fostered
by the centers is exemplified by the Philadelphia group. Thrash, the head
of the graphics division, had only three other artists, who were white,
in his section. None had much experience with the various print-making
processes. Roswell Weidner one of the shopmates, described the scene:
"We worked there every day. Five days a week. Nobody kept time on
us, but we all were gung-ho....This was a great opportunity...we all helped
each ether. The blind helping the blind."9
Weidner admits that it was a shock for him to find himself working with
Thrash, a Black man. Yet he said, "To me, he was a man." And
besides, Weidner recalled, the shop's energy was completely focused on
the development of various print processes. "He was a nice guy, but
he didn't talk. He came in and worked and we got along, and there it was.
Print making, that was the extent of the whole thing."10
The Carborundum print can be directly attributed to Thrash. Carborundum
is the trade name for a coarse, granular industrial product made of carbon
and silicone that is used for grinding and polishing. The Carborundum
print grew out of Thrash's use of Carborundum crystals to resurface used
lithographic stones. Thrash experimented by manipulating various grades
of Carborundum crystals until he achieved a wide range of tints and tonal
variations in the final print.11 In notes for a book he was
planning to write, Thrash acknowledged his colleagues for their assistance
in "perfectinn" the method, but he cleariv and definitively
stated, "I do claim credit for the discovery. "12
Because Carborundum was a commercial trade name, Thrash called his prints
"carbographs" and later "Opheliagraphs," after his
mother. The evolution of the Opheliagraph proved Thrash to be a virtuoso
printmaker. The Iyricism he was able to extract from this dense medium
produced portraits such as Charlott, Whiskem, and Abraham, which reveal
a vast range of tonal variation. The complex darks are sparked by transluscent
lights, enhancing an emotional depth and sensitivity not seen before in
Black portraiture in this country. Under the sensitive hands of Dox Thrash,
the manipulation of the Carborundum print process realized masterful achievements.
Clark, ohen working along with Thrash, also experimented with the Carborundum
tint process, adding and experimenting with color. As today, it was not
uncommon for an artist to take a single image and play in various ways
with its potential. In the Groove and Boogie Woogie are
Carborundum prints that Clark executed both in black and white and in
color. Etchings and aquatints, however, appear to have been Clark's favorite
media, since they allowed him to develop more precise draftsman's skills.
These prints explored the elements of gesture and line in the popular
dance movements of the period.
Steth, working primarily in aquatint and carbograph, produced a powerful
series of studies that reflect deeply and often critically on Black life
and culture in America. Where Thrash was a master technician, Steth was
a master of content and commentary. A natural storyteller in the tradition
of the African griot, Steth poignantly recorded the life of the Black
community in such prints as Apostolic, which shows the congregation of
a church caught ir' the fervor of spiritual ecstasy. Steth's narrative
attains epic proportions in his series The Evolution of Swing,
which traces the bistory of Black music from Africa through slavery to
jazz. In Beacons of Defense the role of the industrialized urban
worker is played out in the crossfire of beam lights crisscrossing the
The breadth of many of Steth's compositions reflects the influence of
the Mexican mural movement of the twenties. The Mexicans had thrown off
Spanish and other European influences to develop an indigenous style,
one that was intended to speak to everyone, not just to the culturally
advantaged. Their ideals, and their vivid monumental forms, inspired scores
of New Deal artists, both Black and white, who felt they, too, were working
to bring about a new social order.
Like the Mexicans,.Steth addressed demanding questions of grave social
and political consequence. Such haunting images as Debris, Patton St.
Derelict, Despair, and / am an American delineate the Black
man's bitter experience in an America where all men were supposedly created
equal. The most searing indictment from Steth's stylus is a composition
entitled Heaven on a Mule. Two Black children wearing makeshift
wings of twigs and netting sit on a broken-down mule and look across a
barren field littered with discarded objects. To the leh of the picture
are the children's father and mother and a dog, all fitted with the same
wings. Steth gives the figures angelic forms to evoke their yearning for
deliverance from despair. This print clearly demonstrates the freedom
Black artists had under the WPA to express their unique perspective on
the American scene.
Brown, the watercolorist, did not spend as much time in the graphics
workshop as the other three Philadelphia artists, but he did try his hand
at a small variety of themes. Best known among his prints is Writing
Lesson, which, like his watercolors, focuses boldly and directly on
a single subject performing a task. Abstract is a more experimental
composition. In its overall departure from the primarily figurative style
of the American Scene artists, it shows the effects of a new familiarity
with European forms of abstraction.
Community art centers provided many artists with their primary exposure
to print-making processes, but they not only taught the craft, they also
provided exhibition opportunities for the artists and students involved
in their projects. Without the centers, many artists never would have
had the time to spend on creative experimentation and artistic growth.
One of the most active centers was Karamu House, founded in 1915 in Cleveland,
which took its name from a Swahili word meaning "center of community."
Karamu House was an interracial hub designed to address the cultural needs
of one of the worst slums in the city. Although by the time of the Depression
it was already recognized for its renowned theater group, it was not until
Karamu House received funding from the WPA/FAP that it established a strong,
visible presence in Cleveland. The funds enabled Karamu House to hire
well- trained Black artists as teachers.
The artists who came to Karamu House eventually formed the Cleveland Karamu
House Artists Association, Inc., in 1935.'13 The association's membership
included Hughie Lee-Smith (b. 1915), Elmer Brown (1909-1971), Charles
Sallee (b. 1913) and Fred CarIo (no dates available).
Like New York and Philadelphia, Cleveland boasted a strong group of artists
committed to the development of individual forms of expression. This climate
of seriousness and purpose was fostered by Karamu House's stated objective,
which was, in part, to define:
"First, the direction of the Negro's creative abilities into the mainstream
of American life, thus removing him from the isolation which has been
so costly to initiative and ambition. Secondly, to enable the Negro to
tell his own story to the community and the Nation, making directly known
his sufferings, his dissatisfaction, his aspirations and his ambitions."14
James Porter wrote that, in 1937, Sallee was the leader of a powerful
group of artists who would make a difference in the quality of prints
created under the WPA."15 Porter pointed to Sallee's etchings
Bertha, Emetta, Swingtime, and Post Sitters as evidence
of Sallee's strong hand and observant eye. In Elmer Brown's Wrestlers,
the power and energy of the Black athlete, a little-documented subject,
suggests the wide range of issues the Karamu artists chose to explore.
Hughie Lee-Smith was another crucial addition to the Karamu House faculty.
Lee-Smith is a brilliant draftsman who uses line and shape to depict his
subjects. Artist Life No. 7 and Artist Life No. 3 are two
of the surviving lithographs of the period that give early testimony to
the breadth of his skills and abilities. Lee-Smith was a master teacher
as well, who influenced numerous younger artists with not only his technical
mastery but also his impassioned and uncompromising dedication to his
New York City has for at least a century been acknowledged as the cultural
capital of the United States. It was therefore natural that Harlem continued
to evolve as a Black cultural center in the tradition of the Harlem Renaissance
of the twenties. Harlem was a magnet, and even though much of the creative
fire and energy of that prior decade of phenomenal activity had subsided,
the Harlem Art Center became a major focal point of activity for the WPA
The Harlem center was run by painter Gwendolyn Bennett. Many now-famous
Black artists passed through its doors as teenagers. Their training became
a crucial component of the historical legacy of Black America, since this
was one of the few times when younger Black artists developed under the
tutelage of other Black artists.
Many of the artists, while ultimately gravitating towards painting and
sculpture, tried their hand at print making. Robert Blackburn (b. 1920)
and Ronald Joseph (b. 1910), two of the youngest pupils at the center,
were both taught by Riva Helfond who was herself but a few steps ahead
of her students in learning the various print processes. Lithography,
etching, woodblock, and silk-screen were explored. With the rapid exchange
of technical information and the relentless exploration of the various
print media, it was often hard to tell the teachers from the students,
as roles became blurred in the excitement of the work.
Blackburn's early lithographs include remarkable works, such as Abandoned
Coal Chute, Rooftops, Checker Game, and People in Boat, all
done around 1937, when he was only seventeen. Blackburn's keen observation
of details, his deft draftsmanship and his youthful creative abandon gave
him an early sense of freedom to test the limits of his medium. Joseph,
who is still active, was equally skillful and gifted in his early compositions,
such as Graphic Workshop, Tenement Window, Bob Blackburn, and Under
As teachers at the Harlem center, Charles Alston (1907-1977), Ernest
Crichlow (b. 1914), and Norman Lewis (1909-1979) had great impact on younger
Black artists. They sought not only to teach but to learn. Prolific producers
of prints, they took advantage of every opportunity to gain access to
a press. While we know that there were great stretches of intense productivity
during this period, the prints themselves have not survived to bear witness.
Crichlow lamented that "there were no Black curators at that time who
went about to save and preserve this work. I have no idea where my work
is now."16 It is well known by now that innumerable works of
art produced under the WPA were warehoused, distributed without being
catalogued, or in many cases lost. All that remains for Crichlow is Lover,
a composition that reveals the prelude of a rape. It is an ominous lithograph,
small but powerful in its tale of a Black woman accosted in a bedroom
by a hooded member of the Ku Klux Klan. It stands as a riveting expose
against the traditional themes of the American scene.
Alston was no less challenging in Who likes War? or Justice
at Wartime. Alston chose to challenge American clichés of justice
and freedom by showing the Statue of Liberty grimacing menacingly at the
viewer. Yet Alston had a deep capacity for lyricism as well, which he
expressed in rural landscapes such as Barn and Broken Down Silo and
Stud Poker. For Alston, the tonal range of the lithograph afforded
wide variations in style and mood.
Lewis was another master who had a great effect on many young Black artists.
Lewis emerged early as an abstractionist and sought every opportunity
to experiment in style, medium, and subject matter. Po// Tax and
We Are Americans Too, eloquently rendered with a passion for detail,
relate the trauma of America's disenfranchised Black people. Lewis also
toyed music and the bars that housed the great masters of jazz. He rendered
homage to their contributions in Musicians and Untitled Group,
two prints in which the rhythms of music play a large part in the
expressive manipulation of composition and figure.
Richard Lindsey (b. 1904) was another Harlem center artist whose works
from the WPA era are lost to us. His only extant print, Colonial Park,
gives ample evidence of his abilities as a printmaker with a strong
eye for landscape.
William Henry Johnson (1901-1971) was a loner, one of the last artists
to be hired to work at the Harlem center before it closed in 1941. His
highly personal and expressive, pseudo-naive style and his deliberate
choice of subject matter were of great concern to many Blacks in the community
as well as to fellow artists. But the depth of his commitment to documenting
Black life in America can be seen in such prints as Folk Family, Ezekial
Saw the Wheel, Off to War, and Hunger. Woodblock and, especially,
silk-screen were Johnson's favorite vehicles. A woodblock entitledFarm
Couple at Well took time out from serious subjects to make a visual
pun on Grant Wood's endlessly reproduced American Gothic. Johnson
was obsessive in his exploration of the serigraph. Whenever he ran out
of paper to print on, he used the daily newspaper so he wouldn't have
to break the flow of his production.17
Chicago's Southside Community Art Center opened its doors in December
1940, a latecomer to the roster of WPA facilities.
The SSCAC was successful, despite its short run, largely due to the presence
of such artists as Charles White, Gordon Parks, Archibald Motely, Charles
Sebree, and Margaret Burroughs. It is difficult to determine the extent
to which print making played a role in the SSCAC's curriculum, and in
fact only Burroughs is known to have executed prints there during this
Burroughs also has the distinction of being one of the few women known
to have experimented with print processes. It appears that most Black
women artists were assigned to the easel and sculpture projects, and there
is little evidence to suggest their interest in printing. Riva Helfond,
a white woman, who taught and made prints at the Harlem Recreation Center,
instructed Robert Blackburn and Ronald Joseph in lithography and participated
actively in the cultural life of the time.
The community centers may be seen as one arm of the WPA/ FAP's program
in art education; projects centered at Black colleges and universities
were the other. Segregation was still very much a part of America's cultural
and political landscape, and Black institutions were the only fountainheads
of educational development for Blacks.
Perhaps the most vibrant of these institutions was Atlanta University,
a unique complex that included Spelman College and Morehouse College.
In 1931 the Atlanta University system hired the well-known painter Hate
Woodruff (1900-1980) to help develop a fine arts curriculum as well as
to teach painting and drawing. The following year the university opened
a gallery space to showcase the works of not only its own faculty and
students, but also artists of national and international reputation.
While employed by the university, Woodruff was also hired on the WPA/FAP
project. The scope of his assignments is not clear. "During my spare time
I did my project," Woodruff recalled laconically. "The inspector would
come around once or twice every two or three months to see how you were
getting on."8 From around 1935 to 1943, Woodruff worked at a multitude
of projects, completing easel paintings, murals, and blockprints. The
blockprint became one of Woodruff's principal media to communicate expressively
the visual characteristics of his people. His style was heavily influenced
by the Mexican muralists, especially Diego Rivera, with whom Woodruff
studied. (It happens that Woodruff was one of the few assistants the irascible
Rivera could bear to work with.) Rhythm, strong lines, and dramatic narrative
inform such works as By Parties Unknown, Three Musicians, Giddap, and
Returning Home, blockprints that reveal the vitality Woodruff was
able to bring to this medium.
One of Woodruff's students in the WPA project was Wilmer Jennings (b.
1910). Although trained and nurtured by Woodruff, Jennings felt free to
experiment in different media, including lithography and wood engraving.
The two disparate media afforded him a wide range of graphic possibilities.
Jennings was a master of the wood engraving: Still Life with Fetish
shows a brilliant and detailed rendering of a vase, a plant, and an
The most significant creative activity of the WPA/FAP projects took place
in Black communities in the major urban areas of the East Coast and the
Midwest. But to fully explore the realm of the Black printmaker, it is
imperative to consider the singular activity and contribution of Sargent
Johnson (1887- 1967), who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Johnson migrated to the West Coast from Washington, D.C., in 1915 and
studied art periodically from the twenties to the forties. He maintained
a high profile on the national art scene, even though he worked without
the benefit of a closely knit support group of other Black artists. He
was one of the most consistently exhibited artists in New York's Harmon
Foundation expositions during the twenties and thirties. By 1936, he was
with the W PA/ FAP sculpture division, and during his tenure he was
the only Black to achieve the positions of senior sculptor, assistant
supervisor, assistant state supervisor, and ultimately unit supervisor.19
As in other locales, it was not uncommon for artists assigned to one project
to pursue their interests in other areas, since facilities were so accessible.
While Johnson's primary emphasis was on sculpture and ceramics, late in
the thirties he began to develop a deep curiosity for print making, especially
lithography. Access to WPA/FAP facilities allowed him to explore the technology
and use new materials. Soon he was making prints, and these prints expressed
a strong sense of racial consciousness and pride. The use of line and
movement in the abstract, stylized composition of Dorothy clearly
reflects his deep love for his people. In 1935 he told an interviewer
from the San Francisco Chronic/e:
"It is the pure American Negro I am concerned with, aiming to show
the natural beauty and dignity in that characteristic lip and that characteristic
hair, bearing and manner; and I wish to show that beauty not so much to
the white man as to the Negro himself."20
The eight years of the WPA/FAP, 1935 to 1943, were a short period of history,
but a crucial one for American artists. In the cases of Black artists,
it had a phenomenal impact, providing them with support to develop in
a vocation that otherwise would have been almost impossible to pursue.
All the artists in this exhibition continued to develop their careers
in the visual arts. In the cases of Hale Woodruff and Robert Blackburn,
they moved on to establish institutions that helped to preserve and promote
the Black artist within American society.
In 1941, Woodruff, the primary force behind the "Atlanta School" of Black
artists, established the first competition of artists at Atlanta University.
This ultimately became the Atlanta University Art Convention. By 1948,
Blackburn had begun the long, arduous task of developing the Printmaking
Workshop in New York. The workshop has not only been an invaluable center
for the artistic and technical development of the print process for the
Black artist, but has achieved national and international recognition.
It is possible that artistic creativity and cultural enlightenment might
have prevailed during the Depression without the sponsorship of the WPA/FAP.
It is unlikely, however, that there would have been the great wave of
experimentation and technological advancement to which all the artists
in this exhibition contributed. The government did little at the time
to protect or further the overall civil rights of the Black American,
but it did make certain opportunities available to all. And Black artists
around the country took full advantage of every possible chance to provide
history with a visual legacy of their times, their culture, and their
Leslie King-Hammond, Curator
1. Vernon Winslow, "Negro Art and the Depression," Opportunity Journal
of Negro Life, XIX (February 1941), pp. 42, 62.
2. Francis V. O' Connor, Federal/ Support for the Visual Arts: the
New Deal and Now, New York Graphic Society, Ltd.,1969, p. 17.
3. See the collections of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture,
New York Public Library, and the Moorland/ Spingarn Special Collection,
Howard University, Washington, D.C., which house the only known extant
examples of Moorehead's prints.
4. See Isaiah Thomas, The History of Printing in America with a Biography
of Printers and an Account of Newspapers to Which is Prefixed a Concise
View of the Discovery and Progress of the Art in Other Parts of the World
(Worcester, Mass., from the Press of Isaiah Thomas, Isaac Sturtenant,
6. Riva Helfond was an instructor assigned to teach at the Harlem Recreation
Center in the late 1930s who taught Robert Blackburn the rudiments of
this craft. See Through a Master Printer: Robert Blackburn and the
Printmaking Workshop, (Columbia, S.C.: The Columbia Museum, 1985),
7. James Porter, Modern Negro Art (New York: Dryden Press, 1943),
8. Francis V. O' Connor, Federal Support for the Visual Arts: the New
Deal and Now, New York Graphic Society, Ltd., 1969, p.29.
9. Interview with Roswell Weidner, Artist, October 31, 1986, by David
R. Brigham, Print Division, Philadelphia Free library, p.7.,10. Ibid.,p.9.
I 1. Originally, collaborative credit had been given to this process,
which included Thrash's colleagues Michael J. Gallagher and Hubert Mesibor.
See The Carborundum Print, W.P.A. Technical Series Art Circular,
No. 5, September 10, 19,40.
12. The majority of the text, "History of My Life," by Dox Thrash,
is published in Ruth Fine Lehrer's Philadelphia: Three Centuries of
(Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1976), p. 553.
13. See Al Bright's unpublished paper "Black Artists and the Cleveland
Experience 1930s and 1940s,'' presented at the Visions Foundation Symposium,
14. James Porter, Modem Negro Art (New York: Dryden Press, 1943),
15. Ibid, p.159.
16. Conversation and interview with Ernest Crichlow on November 22, 1988,
17. Extant works located in the National Museum of American Art reveal
that several of the images in the Jitterbug series were executed on newsprint.
18. See Hale Woodruff: 50 Years of His Art (New York: Studio Museum
in Harlem, 1979), p. 81.
19. The Oakland Museum, Sargent Johnson Retrospective, p. 18.
20. San Francisco Chronicle, October 6, 1935.