Littérateurs at the Banks of the
Intertextual Fluxion and the Desire for Universality
(in Texts by Ephraim G. Squier, Mark Twain, José Coronel Urtecho and Gioconda Belli)
Oh, happy land, Mahoma's paradise!
Nicaragua, grand, divine the plan,
To link two oceans with a ship canal;
Grand, immortal will be thy future fate,
Thy name well known to every state.
The British flunkies may rave and sputter
About Kinney, Walker--”filibuster”--
But Yankee pluck and Yankee enterprise
Will soon possess Mahoma's paradise”
(Patrick Cudmore 1892, cited in Brannstrom 61)
There exists a river in Nicaragua where all the stories meet: The San Juan River, roughly 200 kilometers long, part of the border with Costa Rica, once at the center of colonial power struggles in the Caribbean, passage to the Californian gold fields, national, history-laden symbol in Nicaragua and one of the remotest and least populated areas of the country; the place where the 'geographic destiny' (IHNCA 5) of the nation – an interoceanic canal – was supposed to come true but never did. The great national desire for universality is, in a way, buried here.
primarily came into being through literary texts. There are huge
amounts of texts that have imagined, described and thus created this
space: The first known texts about the river stem from the
conquistadors, but the 'boom' of literature about the San Juan River
took place in the 19th century: European and U.S.-American
diplomats, engineers, scientists, littérateurs and adventurers traveled
along the river for transit purposes or for canal surveys and wrote
about it. These
texts triggered a powerful narrative which was taken up by the
Nicaraguan elites: These strips of land were chosen to be the route for
the world trade; an interoceanic canal would boost world trade and
bring progress, civilization and prosperity to
One of the first
texts to break the silence is Rápido tránsito. Al
ritmo de Norte América (
1959), autobiographical essays/travelogues by José Coronel Urtecho,
leader of the Vanguardia movement and a very important figure in the
literary scene in
Now, the purpose
of this article is to show how Coronel's and Belli's texts, in their
intertextual interaction with Squier's and Twain's, not only revise the
powerful narrative of the canal (as one of progress) but moreover
re-signify the space of the river for the nation by depicting and
construing it as a literary space. In a final step I shall then discuss
how this constitution aims at the Nicaraguan desire for universality.
A Narrative of Progress Revised
The hybrid text Rápido
tránsito deals with the strange
surprising, the first chapter “Viajeros en el río” – the one about the
Defending his “soledad casi sagrada” (3), which he found at the San Juan River, the narrator starts an ambivalent dialog with Squier's text and shows a skeptical attitude towards the canal. While Squier had concluded his first chapter about San Juan del Norte with the following remark:
The habits of the natives were unchanged in the space of three hundred years; [...] They little thought that the party of strangers, gliding silently before them, were there to prepare the way for the clanging steamer, and that the great world without was meditating the titanic enterprise of laying open their primeval solitude, grading down their hills, and opening from one great ocean to the other, a gigantic canal. upon which the navies of the world might pass, laden with the treasures of two hemispheres! (Squier 70).
Coronel now finishes his first chapter with the following thoughts, which can be read as an answer to Squier:
La soledad es cada vez mayor y más bella en el río. Tal vez el río se pueble un día, como pensaba Squier; naveguen barcos y gasolinas; pasten caballos y ganados de raza en sus llanos y en los gramales de las lomas; se miren en sus orillas hermosas casas tropicales y en muchas de ellas libros americanos y retratos de poetas. Tal vez la soledad y la belleza primitiva queden sólo en los libros. Tal vez la selva vuelva a cubrirlo todo. Todo depende (Coronel 24).
still a certain ambivalence here, one can
encounter more and more explicit critiques of a certain
economic-technical form of progress throughout the book: the shock
about the industrialized
away from politics and in some way took refuge at his wife's finca by
The critique of progress becomes even more evident in Waslala, which does not only reincorporate Coronel's ambivalent answer to Squier into the novel but also takes an even more negative stand on the issue of the canal.
The novel takes
place in the future, where there is still no interoceanic canal, but
only one from the Pacific to the
The critique of progress is also voiced through the two U.S.-American figures of the novel, the journalist Raphael and the scientist Morris, both of whom enter into a crisis in the light of the heavy contrasts between 'their world' and the one of Faguas: Their only function in the novel is to name and recognize the non-fulfillment and/or the negative consequences of progress in Faguas.
The novel also
formulates a critique of progress on yet another level: While Coronel
reinforces his anti-progress-argument through direct reference to the
transcendentalist Thoreau, Belli draws upon genres related to
romanticism and plays with the science fiction genre to state her
point. Belli uses elements of science fiction without pulling through
with it (Mackenbach “Unbewohnte Utopie” 500). From my perspective, she
does so to insinuate that science fiction is an
impossibility in a country like
It seems that, in the “postmodern hell” (Mackenbach “Unbewohnte Utopie” 499) depicted in the novel, the fairytale is the only possible structuring element and possible bridge to the international solidarity movement (5). Thus, the references to genres in Waslala not only serve as a critique of progress and the development paradigm, but open up a broader context. The idea that the nation can fulfill its 'destiny' only through the construction of the canal is denied just as it is in Rápido tránsito.
authors make use of different literary strategies to write against the
narrative of the canal and try to suggest other readings and writings
mentioned, it is greatly due to travelogues that the (inter)national
narrative around the canal came into being. However, travelers not only
I employ the term 'literary space' in order to conceptualize a very interesting dynamic: namely, that in these texts the periphery and marginalized
dynamic occurs on various levels: the
literature construes and depicts the San Juan River as a space which is
created by literature and which generates literature, a place where
literature happens and meets intertextually, and as a hoard of
literature, as to say a place where literature belongs, or as Leonel
Delgado puts it,”el río como
espacio fundado por la escritura y a la vez productor de escritura
inagotable” (Interview, March 2008).
The Enchantment of the Tropics: Coronel's Dialogs with Traveling Littérateurs
In the first
chapter of Rápido tránsito, “Viajeros en el río“, Squier and
Twain have a prominent role: Coronel lets them speak about the beauty
[S]u admiración [Squier's] era la selva tropical y el vasto río, por la invariable majestad de su carácter (majestic character). No se cansaba nunca de contemplar la densa masa de follaje que literalmente, según aseguraba, cubría el río y que en la luz oblicua producía efectos mágicos de sombra sobre el agua [...] soñaba con ver un día la tierra cultivada, [...]; pero un siglo después de su viaje el río sigue tan bello y despoblado como entonces (7, italics in the original). (6)
“según aseguraba” mainly insinuates the process of translation, there
are other moments
when the narrator comments on certain statements of Squier and even
doubts them. Squier, an arduous promoter of the manifest destiny of
Since Squier himself is quite associated with the canal idea, Coronel introduces another traveler, who does not even mention the canal in his texts and who is a world famous writer: Mark Twain. Twain got to know the country in transit while traveling from San Francisco to New York – experiences he jotted down in his travel diary and published in an enhanced and revised version in the newspaper Alta California (8).
Although the narrator writes that one would hardly dare to change Twain's notes (Coronel 10), he sure does so and hence depoliticizes the travel notes. Mark Twain wrote in a poetic-humorous way about the arrival at San Juan del Sur (on the Pacific coast) and the journey to the lake:
Left San Juan [del Sur] in carriages – native drivers armed with
long knives – native soldiers barefooted, with muskets. Threatened war
between 2 candidates for Presidency of Republic of Nicaragua – case of
a contested election – present president to hold his polish and whip
both parties. Long procession of horsemen and
hacks – beautiful road and cool, rainy atmosphere. All on lookout for wild monkeys.
translates parts of this description, leaving out the remarks on the
impending civil war in
nativos iban armados de machetes. Los soldados nativos descalzos, con
mosquetas. Procesión de jinetes y jamelgos. Bello camino, y la
atmósfera fresca, lloviznosa. Naranjas. Bananos. Aguardiente. Café. Tortillas calientes. Jícaras labradas. Bonitas
mujeres nativas. Vuelos alrededor
anything negative is not translated; nothing shall destroy the
which is especially emphasized in Twain's descriptions of the trip
river. The narrator notes surprised that Twain, who had been a
does not take much notice of the rapids at El Castillo, but he finds
explanation in him being stunned by the nature: “El mismo paraíso, en
dominio imperial de la belleza. Era evidente que Mark Twain estaba
entusiasmado, ebrio de formas y colores” (12). Coronel's
translation of Twain's text stresses
primarily the enchanting atmosphere: “Eran
aquellas las señales
However, Coronel also points to some
in Mark Twain's notes (at least those which are not related to
writer Coronel likes this ironic disruption. Likewise, his whole book Rápido tránsito is itself pervaded by fine irony: Grandiloquent thoughts about the function of literature are broken with descriptions of day-to-day encounters and portraits, dashed with an ironic tone of the narrator towards himself. There is a constant intent of undercutting; landscapes are created linguistically and disintegrated right away; thoughts are built up argumentatively only to end up in a sudden shift or to ebb away in a gesture of doubt.
after having talked about one representative of world literature, comes
to speak of Míster Kennedy: one of the few US-Americans who actually
settled at the San Juan River and who is “una especie de diario hablado
con todas las pequeñas noticias personales
(nameless) traveler wakens the interest of the narrator because he
happens to notice two special books in his hut: selected works of
Thoreau and a biography about the transcendentalist, two texts which,
according to the narrator, belong here: “dos libros en perfecta armonía
con el paraje” (17). The last traveler, the young biology student
Douglas, brings with him not only his fascination for the fauna of the
area, but also long conversations about
From Positivism to Magic and the River as a Memory Space
Waslala also works with
the gaze of the traveler to revalue the space of the
La multitud de pájaros de brillante plumaje que se lanzaban sorpresivamente de las altas ramas, cual flores que se echaron a volar, provocaba las exclamaciones de Raphael, quien [...] no cesaba de asombrarse ante la belleza de aquel paraje que envuelto en la luz rojiza del sol poniente, era la visión más poética que él jamás recordara haber tenido en su retina (Belli 90).
This passage paraphrases the already cited paragraph by Squier (see endnote 6) and Coronel’s translation of it, only that now it is Raphael who never wearies to look at the all-surrounding beauty and that Belli’s description is even more saturated with kitsch than Squier’s.
interesting is the fact that Belli not only incorporates Squier’s text
into Waslala, but also reinterprets it. Belli uses
Squier’s text to depict the
freaks” now become part of the magic of the river in Waslala:
In the future, Pedro is back with his conch, that had annoyed Squier so
much – “Pedro blew another nerve-cracking blast on his conch - that
awful conch“ (Squier 122) – and his crew prays and chants. Squier had
also briefly mentioned that at some point the
This becomes even more evident in the depiction of the so called Remolino Grande, about which Squier wrote the following: “This name is given to a whirlpool caused by the abrupt turning of the stream, which is here somewhat confined by its unyielding banks” (103). This swirl becomes a magical one in Waslala, seemingly encompassing the sirens of the Ulysses, El Aleph and the myths around the sinking of the Titanic:
[E]l negro tornasol, todos los colores por efímeros instantes, dissolviéndose en arcoiris sucesivos; [...] Vio cofres y barcos y sillas, puentes de mando de barcos fantasmas con sus capitanes en la pose digna con que se hundirían sin hacer alarde, ni quejarse; vio una orquesta entera inmóvil [...] vio mapas de regiones perdidas [...]; vio miles de relojes de arena hacerse y deshacerse en círculos infinitos y contempló finalmente el iris quieto del agua en el centro, hermoso como laguna de fin del mundo (Belli 109).
Belli reinterprets Squier's experiences, the question remains whether
in this way she subversively undercuts the gaze of the other or if she
thus rather fortifies the exoticizing gaze. In Waslala the
incorporation and reinterpretation of these texts the river space is
first of all construed as a (magical) idyllic nature spot and through
the reinterpretation of the texts the gaze of the other is
appropriated. Coronel and Belli also draw upon oral elements and thus
fix and locate the (for
Coronel as hombre letrado amidst 'the Jungle'
In this section, I want to
demonstrate how both authors further construe the
Rápido tránsito is always read
autobiographically by literary scholars, which seems surprising because
the paratextual references are conflicting at least. Furthermore, an
autobiographical pact in the sense of Philippe Lejeune (1989) is only
possible at two moments in the whole book and – interestingly enough –
there the name always appears distorted due to processes of
translation: At one point the narrator recounts that a U.S.-American
girl names a wallet in form of a dog after his name: “le puso al
perrito mi nombre, que pronunciaba Oséy.” (Coronel 47, italics
in the original); he similarly reproduces the distorted pronunciation
when he talks about how Ernesto Cardenal and himself are presented as
“míster Cardinal y míster Cornell” (131) in the
However, as Leonel Delgado details, the text is shaped by another characteristic of autobiographical texts: the one of confession and apology for deeds which one committed – in this regard Coronel “confesses” indirectly, talking about Ezra Pound to excuse his own proximity to fascist ideas in his youth and using Henry David Thoreau to defend his own retreat into solitude/nature (Delgado 218-225).
Still, I think –
even taking into consideration the autobiographical dimension of essays
marker is the reference to
Si alguna parte tuve yo mismo en orientar en un sentido a ciertos poetas jóvenes de nuestro país, fue solamente en darles a conocer, hace veinte años, la poesía norteamericana propiamente moderna que iniciara Ezra Pound y que tenía nombres tan raros, nuevos y poco familiares, como T.S. Eliot, Marianne Moore, E.E. Cummings o William Carlos Williams. (Coronel 156).
Thus, although perhaps only for those familiar with Nicaraguan literary life, an autobiographical reading is definitely possible.
Rápido tránsito deals with so
many different literary texts that the narrator is primarily perceived
as very erudite and as a literary critic. The self-construction as hombre
letrado happens initially in the first chapter “
Viajeros en el río”, where the image of the “estante de libros
norteamericanos” (Coronel 8, 22), which the narrator harbors in his
home at the
According to the narrator, the bookshelf irritates travelers who do not expect such a thing amidst “the jungle”. This is exemplified through the episode with the biology student Douglas:
[D]isimuló su extrañeza, pero le vi en los ojos que le sorprendía tanto como encontrarse un caimán en Beacon Street [...]. Nunca pensé – decía, como hablando consigo mismo – encontrar aquí, en la orilla de la jungla – the jungle era su palabra –un libro de Elliot o de ningún otro escritor americano (Coronel 22f, italics in the original).
The literature at the San Juan means something exotic and unexpected to Douglas, and the hombre letrado plays coquettishly with his own exotic status by the river, whereby he seems to squint with one eye at the USA and with the other towards Nicaragua: 'Look, civilization also exists in the alleged jungle'.
The view of the
Muy pocos norteamericanos de los que pasan por el río he podido tratar, porque generalmente son reservados con los nativos y van de prisa, envueltos en su propia esquivez, sintiéndose aventureros solitarios en la jungla, donde no hay teóricamente hombres civilizados, y pensando nada más en lo que llevarán o contarán cuando regresen a la civilización, a su país, cuando vuelvan a América (Coronel 16).
At this point,
the question remains, if in this way the narrator depicts all the other
river inhabitants as uncivilized people. Leonel Delgado comments about
this paragraph: “Aquí el concepto
de civilización es invocado [...] en razón de la deducción más
evidente—esto es, subrayar que Coronel es un
civilizado entre nativos”; however, Delgado also writes that this
reference is meant ironically, since the
It is precisely because this alleged U.S. civilization sometimes turns out to be not so civilized: Coronel narrates an episode with a U.S. politician who is quite astonished about his poster of Walt Whitman, explaining that Whitman was not that popular in the U.S. and that he himself considers him boring and monotonous and that people in the U.S. would prefer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha (Coronel 8f). Coronel does not comment on this in this chapter, but in the last chapter he talks about Hiawatha in such a depreciatory manner as he did not about any other text in the whole book: “el poema es ingenuo, infantil, sin relación viviente con el tema“(203). Civilization lies in the eyes of the beholder, but no reader will have failed to notice the permanent self-construction of Coronel as hombre letrado in Rápido tránsito.
Through this construction
Coronel does not only bring the literature,
which materializes in his person, to the
succeeded in doing so. For example, the Nicaraguan poet Luis Rocha said
in his opening speech of a poet reunion in homage to José Coronel
Urtecho, which took place in San José in 2001: “Para mí el Río San Juan
corre, vital y literariamente, en Jośe Coronel Urtecho. Si
pensaba en uno necesariamente pensaba en el otro, hasta que se hicieron
uno sólo“ (9). In
Whatsoever, this particular perception of the space has not only been continued in speeches at poetry festivals but also within novels such as Waslala by Gioconda Belli, who through the figure of Don José continues the construction of José Coronel as hombre letrado and poet: “[E]n el río [Don José] leía, escribía poesía, honraba a los clásicos. Hasta tenía un retrato de Whitman en su estudio, y predicaba el amor a la belleza, al arte, a la filosofía” (Belli 19). Not only does she take up certain elements of Coronel's self-construction as hombre letrado like the poster of Walt Whitman and cites and paraphrases parts of his texts (see Belli 14, 17, 22, 86f), but she also tries to include the mental crisis that Coronel had in the 1950s by letting him recount how he spoke with literary figures:
Pensadores, escritores, personajes de la literatura me han acompañado tan sólidamente como si estuvieran a mi lado en carne y hueso. [...] Sufrí de alucinaciones en las que hablaba con Mrs. Dolloway y Mrs. Ramsey. Pasaba noches conversando con Cervantes y Borges sobre la posibilidad de que alguien reescribiera el Quijote sin jamás haberlo leído. (Belli 60).
The interesting thing here is not so much the reference to his nervous breakdown, but rather that through this the San Juan is even more filled with literature, stories, literary figures and writers, with García Márquez's landscapes and with Heathcliff and Cathy from Wuthering Heights (61).
In the section
“Citas y reconocimientos” at the end of the book, it is explicitly said
that certain parts of the novel are taken from Rápido tránsito
and from Coronel's poem “Pequeña biografía de mi mujer” (Belli 383).
Thus not only do the intertextual references show a great deal of
self-reflexivity and comunicativity, but Belli also acquaints a greater
German speaking audience with these two texts by Coronel – which
according to my research have never been translated into any other
language (11). This way, Coronel's figure
roams and circulates; the San Juan River is a literary space because a
poet lived and wrote there - with this novel this idea is transported
beyond the borders of
Werner Mackenbach criticizes that Belli draws a too harmonious and non-critical image of Coronel and that she shields the political contradictions of his life (“Unbewohnte Utopie” 179, footnote 46). This is a quite valid objection because Coronel's radical political shifts are in no way treated through the figure of Don José. He is merely wrapped into a deep nostalgia because he cannot find his way back to Waslala, the utopian place which he once founded with other poets. Just a slight critique shines through, when Melisandra ponders that the retirement to a river cannot be the only solution: “En el río al menos se podía conservar el orgullo. Hacerse la ilusión de un mundo donde cualquier atardecer podía justificar la existencia; [...]. Pero no podía ser esa la única existencia posible. No podía aceptar que el único recurso de la felicidad fuese la reclusión ».(Belli 255)
Maybe this is
also the reason why Waslala is not located near the
The Desire for
Universality and the Meaning of Literature in
In both texts, the San Juan River is re-signified and depicted as a literary space following two strategies: on the one hand through intertextual references to travel literature from the 19th century and through the appropriation of the gaze of the other; on the other hand, through the construction of José Coronel Urtecho as hombre letrado.
Now one could
ask: What is so special about the
Pursuant to my
reading, this constitution tries to show that part of the narrative on
the canal was actually fulfilled, namely the one about
podría ver, dado el contenido histórico
In her novel, Belli points not only to the travelers of the 19th century but also to the international solidarity movement with Nicaragua in the 1980s by letting a group of U.S.-Americans, Germans, Argentinians and Dutch travel on the river (Dröscher 162). All of whom turn out to be important figures for Melisandra in order to find the utopian place.
The function of
the constitution as literary space goes even deeper, though. In his
article “Introducción al tema de la universalidad nicaragüense” (1966),
Coronel tries to trace back the Nicaraguan desire for universality. He
suggests that this desire originates in the exceptional geographical
[L]a poesía es hasta ahora el único producto nicaragüense de valor universal [...] y que si alguna admiración despierta Nicaragua fuera de sus fronteras, no lo debe a otra cosa. Es solamente en la poesía donde hasta aquí hemos alcanzado nuestra propia universalidad (Coronel “Introducción a la universalidad nicaragüense” 7).
As such, the constitution as literary space implies a revaluation of the peripheral region for the nation, in which the literature has such a high standing. Thus, the space is newly appropriated for the nation – through literature and not through the traumatic narrative on the canal.
A similar idea of universality through literature appears in Waslala, e.g. when a minor character suggests about Don José: “Sus prosas, sus poemas, los engrandecían a todos, demostraban que, aun en su miseria, Faguas albergaba belleza, grandes pensamientos” (Belli 249).
And the literature has still another meaning: The (U.S.) paradigm of progress is contrasted with that of civilization. According to Coronel, literature has a civilizing power, or so he writes in Rápido tránsito:
...cumpliendo así una función civilizadora, influyendo con obras bellas en la vida de los otros, afinándoles las percepciones de sus sentidos, las reacciones de su sensibilidad, haciéndolos con eso capaces de placeres superiores más refinados y, por lo mismo, de una vida más alta y más profunda (Coronel 155).
Hence, not only
the idea of the canal is declined through a critique of progress, but
rather a different model for the nation is drawn: not
technical-economic progress, but the idea of civilization. This is of
course quite close to the paradigm of progress, since civilization can
be seen as a form of social progress. But in Coronel's literary world
those are somewhat opposed, and the discussion is closer to a Latin
American constant in identity politics: the dichotomy of civilization
versus barbarism. The
This acts out
quite differently in Waslala because it was published many
years after Rápido tránsito and at a time when
In this sense, it is also quite revealing to turn to the third citation which precedes the novel, a passage of the poem Ulysses by Lord Alfred Tennyson. If one thinks of the intermediary position that Belli takes up (Dröscher 137) and about the moment of publication (six years after the Sandinistas lost the elections), it is possible to read the monologue of the aging Ulysses as a call to national and international compañera/os: “Tis not too late to seek a newer world” and further on:
Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho'
We are not now the strength which in old days
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are,
One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find and not to yield
(Belli: quotation at the beginning)
This call is continued in the book, which foremost deals with the necessity to keep on searching the utopia. Imagination – literary or otherwise – is the key: imagination can change society, such is the idealistic message of the novel. In this regard, it is quite revealing to bring to mind again the romantic references both texts use. The romantic period (esp. the “German” one) was not only characterized by ideas about the blending of literature and politics but also by ideas of the power of literature and that one could encounter “truth” only in literature. This idea is also present in both texts: With Belli, the fairytale becomes the ordering and sense-conceiving structure, and with Coronel the non-literary “reality” is often disappointing in comparison to literature: The Mississippi is more beautiful with Mark Twain than the river which he sees with his own eyes in New Orleans, and the Concord is disillusioningly small: “El río Concord. De pocos ríos he leído tanto como de éste. En prosa y verso, o simplemente en prosa. escribieron acerca de él Emerson, Thoreau y Hawthorne. Tanta literatura ha corrido en su cauce que me lo imaginaba más ancho” (214).
As one could see
throughout this article, a lot of literary texts have flown down the
riverbed of the
(1). I am not
the first to use this image of the ghost: For example, the sociologist
José Luis Rocha writes: “Antes, durante y
después de la temporada de los piratas, el fantasma
(3). “Viajeros en el
río” has been published separately in Revista
Conservadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano (1964) and in Ernesto
Cardenal's anthology about the
Though no time data is given in the novel itself, the back cover reads
that the novel takes place in the 1st century of the third
millennium. Due to some geographical and political particularities,
Belli's Faguas can be read as representing
(6). Squier's original reads: “I never wearied in gazing upon the dense masses of foliage that literally embowered the river, and which, in the slanting light, produced magical effects of shadow on water” (103).
(7). The idea of manifest destiny appears explicitly in the prologue, when Squier explains his intention as to “awaken a true sympathy in the hearts of the American people, for their simple, but unfortunate friends and allies in Central America; or contribute, however slightly, to impress the great truth upon this nation, that the United States is the natural head of the great American family, and that it is a duty which it owes, alike to God and man, to extend its advice, its encouragement, and its support to the oppressed and struggling Republics of Central America“ (xvii, xviii).
It seems that Coronel did not know about these revised texts (published
The appearance of the scientist could put
in danger the critique of progress which appears throughout the text,
because a sympathetic scientist does not go very well with the critique
of progress. Hence, firstly
The use of Waslala as the place of utopia is quite problematic, since
the North has suffered a lot in the Contra war and the actions of the
Sandinistas in the
Tecún, Dante: “Euforia, desilusión, utopía en la narrativa de Gioconda
Belli: el caso de Waslala (1996)”. In: Delhom, Joël
and Musset, Alain (ed.):
Belli, Gioconda: El país bajo mi piel. Memorias de amor y guerra. New York: Vintage Español,  2003.
1996: Waslala. Memorial
and Zimmerman, Marc: Literature and Politics in the Central
Christian: Almost a Canal: Visions for Interoceanic Communication
Broich, Ulrich and Pfister, Manfred (ed.): Intertextualität. Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. Tübungen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1985.
Coronel Urtecho, José  1959: Rápido tránsito (Al ritmo de Norteamérica). Madrid: Aguilar.
Coronel Urtecho, José: “Introducción al Tema de la Universalidad Nicaragüense.” In: Revista Conservadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano. 22,69 (1966): 2-7.
Delgado, Leonel: Interview. 6 March 2008.
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